@article {zappa2004,
title = {Microbreaking and the enhancement of air-water transfer velocity},
journal = {J. Geophys. Res.},
volume = {109},
year = {2004},
pages = {C08S16},
abstract = {The role of microscale wave breaking in controlling the air-water transfer of heat and gas is investigated in a laboratory wind-wave tank. The local heat transfer velocity, k_H , is measured using an active infrared technique and the tank-averaged gas transfer velocity, k_G , is measured using conservative mass balances. Simultaneous, colocated infrared and wave slope imagery show that wave-related areas of thermal boundary layer disruption and renewal are the turbulent wakes of microscale breaking waves, or microbreakers. The fractional area coverage of microbreakers, A _B , is found to be 0.1-0.4 in the wind speed range 4.2-9.3 m s-1 for cleaned and surfactant-influenced surfaces, and k_H and k_G are correlated with A _B . The correlation of k_H with A_B is independent of fetch and the presence of surfactants, while that for k_G with A_B depends on surfactants. Additionally, A_B is correlated with the mean square wave slope, ~~, which has shown promise as a correlate for k_G in previous studies. The ratio of k_H measured inside and outside the microbreaker wakes is 3.4, demonstrating that at these wind speeds, up to 75\% of the transfer is the direct result of microbreaking. These results provide quantitative evidence that microbreaking is the dominant mechanism contributing to air-water heat and gas transfer at low to moderate wind speeds.},
doi = {10.1029/2003JC001897},
author = {Christopher J. Zappa and William E. Asher and Jessup, A. T. and J. Klinke and S. R. Long}
}
@conference {long2002,
title = {A closer look at short waves generated by wave interactions with adverse currents},
booktitle = {Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces},
volume = {127},
year = {2002},
pages = {121--128},
publisher = {American Geophysical Union},
organization = {American Geophysical Union},
author = {S. R. Long and J. Klinke},
editor = {E. S. Saltzman and M. A. Donelan and R. Wanninkhof and W. M. Drennan}
}
@conference {zappa2002,
title = {Effect of microscale wave breaking on air-water gas transfer},
booktitle = {Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces},
volume = {127},
year = {2002},
pages = {23--29},
publisher = {American Geophysical Union},
organization = {American Geophysical Union},
doi = {10.1029/GM127p0023},
author = {Christopher J. Zappa and William E. Asher and Jessup, A. T. and J. Klinke and S. R. Long},
editor = {E. S. Saltzman and M. A. Donelan and R. Wanninkhof and W. M. Drennan}
}
@conference {klinke2000,
title = {Generation of short waves by wave-current interaction},
booktitle = {Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2000. Proceedings. IGARSS 2000. IEEE 2000 International},
year = {2000},
pages = {1084--1086},
doi = {10.1109/IGARSS.2000.858029},
author = {J. Klinke and S. R. Long}
}
@conference {klinke1999,
title = {Observations of free and bound gravity-capillary Waves},
booktitle = {The Wind-Driven Air-Sea Interface, Electromagnetic and Acoustic Sensing, Wave Dynamics and Turbulent Fluxes},
year = {1999},
pages = {87--88},
doi = {10.5281/zenodo.14908},
author = {J. Klinke and Bernd J{\"a}hne and S. R. Long}
}
@conference {spedding1996,
title = {Estimating $\omega(k)$ in an unsteady, wind-generated surface wave field from the 2D complex wavelet transform of the surface slope},
booktitle = {Proc.\ The Air-Sea Interface, Radio and Acoustic Sensing, Turbulence and Wave Dynamics, Marseille, 24--30. June 1993},
year = {1996},
pages = {373--382},
publisher = {RSMAS, University of Miami},
organization = {RSMAS, University of Miami},
doi = {10.5281/zenodo.14564},
author = {G. R. Spedding and J. Klinke and S. R. Long},
editor = {M. A. Donelan and W. H. Hui and W. J. Plant}
}
~~