Out of Distribution Detection for Intra-operative Functional Imaging

TitleOut of Distribution Detection for Intra-operative Functional Imaging
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsAdler, TJ, Ayala, L, Ardizzone, L, Kenngott, HG, Vemuri, A, Müller-Stich, BP, Rother, C, Köthe, U, Maier-Hein, L
Conference NameMICCAI UNSURE Workshop 2019

Multispectral optical imaging is becoming a key tool in the operating room. Recent research has shown that machine learning algorithms can be used to convert pixel-wise reflectance measurements to tissue parameters, such as oxygenation. However, the accuracy of these algorithms can only be guaranteed if the spectra acquired during surgery match the ones seen during training. It is therefore of great interest to detect so-called out of distribution (OoD) spectra to prevent the algorithm from presenting spurious results. In this paper we present an information theory based approach to OoD detection based on the widely applicable information criterion (WAIC). Our work builds upon recent methodology related to invertible neural networks (INN). Specifically, we make use of an ensemble of INNs as we need their tractable Jacobians in order to compute the WAIC. Comprehensive experiments with in silico, and in vivo multispectral imaging data indicate that our approach is well-suited for OoD detection. Our method could thus be an important step towards reliable functional imaging in the operating room.

Citation KeyAdler2019